East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem refers to the parts of Jerusalem captured and annexed by Jordan after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and then captured and annexed by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War.
It includes Jerusalem's Old City and some of the holiest sites of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, such as the Temple Mount, Western Wall, Al-Aqsa Mosque, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The term "East Jerusalem" may refer to either the area which was incorporated into the municipality of Jerusalem after 1967, covering some 70 km2 (27 sq mi) or the territory of the pre-1967 Jordanian controlled part of the Jerusalem municipality, covering 6.4 km2 (2.5 sq mi). East Jerusalem is regarded the capital of Palestine, although Israel does not allow Palestinian government offices in East Jerusalem. Israel has declared all of Jerusalem, both East and West sections, as its undivided eternal capital.
Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Jerusalem was divided into two parts. The western portion, populated primarily by Jews, came under Israeli rule, while the eastern portion, populated mainly by Muslim and Christian Palestinians, came under Jordanian rule. Arabs living in such western Jerusalem neighbourhoods as Katamon or Malha either fled or were in some cases forced out; the same fate befell Jews in the eastern areas, including the Old City and Silwan. The only eastern area of the city that remained in Israeli hands throughout the 19 years of Jordanian rule was Mount Scopus, where the Hebrew University is located, which formed an enclave during that period and therefore is not considered part of East Jerusalem.
Following the 1967 Six-Day War, the eastern part of Jerusalem came under Israeli occupation, along with the entire West Bank. Shortly after the Israeli takeover, East Jerusalem was annexed to West Jerusalem, together with several neighboring West Bank villages. In November 1967, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 was passed, calling for Israel to withdraw "from territories occupied in the recent conflict" in exchange for peace treaties. In 1980, the Knesset passed the Jerusalem Law, which declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel", thus formalizing Israel's unilateral annexation. This declaration was determined to be "null and void" by United Nations Security Council Resolution 478.